Jakarta has a population of over 15million people.
Jakarta is considered to be consuming too much groundwater.
The excessive exploitation of groundwater, according to some, is a key contributing factor to the sinking of Jakarta. Jakarta’s water levels are dangerously low for drinking, bathing, and other daily activities. Piped water is also not accessible in most regions, which means that residents must rely on pumping water from aquifers that are hundreds of feet below ground level.
The city of Jakarta is fast collapsing. As of right present, it is the city with the fastest sinking rate in the world. The following article describes the main causes for the sinking of Indonesia’s capital and the many methods of mitigating urban flooding in the country.
Floods in Jakarta
Floods may be disastrous, and they can occur for a variety of causes, both natural and man-made. Dams and barrages have been built across the globe to direct the flow of water around the planet.
In recent years, this has resulted in a number of catastrophic flooding occurrences as well as the loss of groundwater. Jakarta, Indonesia’s capital city, is sinking year after year, a process known as subsidence.
In addition, the city has seen many urban floods in the last decade. In this post, we’ll talk about the causes of flash floods and the city of Jakarta in particular.
Let us find out
Like many other coastal cities across the globe, Jakarta is struggling with the effects of sea-level rise. However, Jakarta’s most distinctive challenge is that, due to the limited water supply in the city, the vast majority of its population is forced to extract groundwater in order to exist. And it’s contributing to the city’s sinking. According to the World Bank, Jakarta is now the world’s fastest-sinking metropolis.
Every year, the issue worsens, yet its roots can be traced back hundreds of years to when modern Indonesia existed. When the Dutch arrived in Indonesia in the 1600s and began construction on what is now known as Jakarta, they split the city to segregate the populace.
This division eventually led to an uneven water distribution system that excluded the vast majority of indigenous Jakartans, requiring them to locate other water sources.
What is the origin of the nickname “Sinking City” for Jakarta?
By the end of 2050, it is projected that North Jakarta will be submerged to a depth of up to 95 per cent.
In the last ten years, North Jakarta has already fallen 2.5 meters and is expected to continue sinking by about 25 centimetres each year in different city regions.
Compared to other coastal megacities throughout the globe, this is more than twice the worldwide average.
Every year, the city sinks by 1-15 centimetres, with about half of the city immersed underwater.
The following are the reasons for the sinking of the Jakarta:
The excessive exploitation of groundwater, according to some, is a key contributing factor to the sinking of Jakarta. Jakarta’s water levels are dangerously low for drinking, bathing, and other daily activities.
Piped water is also not accessible in most regions, so residents must rely on pumping water from aquifers that are hundreds of feet below ground level. This is the reason why the ground dips or declines in some places. When the land is deflated, it seems to be resting on a balloon.
Jakarta is booming in IT Sector, resulting in urbanisation
In addition, there is socioeconomic development, which includes urbanisation and population expansion and a rise in the demand for groundwater and a corresponding increase in dependency on it. Flooding dangers are enhanced, infrastructure is damaged, and lives are lost as a result of this, in the end.
The second concern is climate change, which implies that sea levels will rise more quickly during severe weather events, forcing embankments to collapse and flooding to occur.
Jakarta is industrial hub of Indonesia
There was no proper focus done in past to diversify the industries to other cities which is resulting in excessing population in Jakarta.
Poor city planning is also one of the primary factors for the city of Jakarta to sink.
The effects of subsidence have become worse as a result of the economic growth. It is more difficult to mitigate the effects of subsidence caused by groundwater extraction when populations are growing in low-lying regions. According to official figures, Indonesia’s population has increased by 35% since 1990.
The Root Causes of Generalized Urban Flooding
Climate Change (Climate Change): This is one of the primary factors contributing to the rise in sea levels and the increase in rainfall, which results in flooding.
Because concrete is used in the building of roadways, there is less seepage of groundwater and flooding in urban areas.
Urbanisation has increased population, which has raised resource demand, and climate change will add additional factors to the equation. Groundwater would be used to an even greater extent due to this.
Planting mangroves in these coastal plains regions may help reduce the severity of floods in the future. Mangroves are claimed to bind the earth together and keep water in the ground where they are planted if properly managed.
An extensive network of prop roots gives the impression that the trees are standing on stilts over the water. Furthermore, global warming must be managed in order to prevent climate change from occurring.
This would result in weather fluctuations and rainfall that could be regulated. According to the World Bank, better city design, which avoids concentrations near natural resources, might also be one of the answers to controlled urban flooding.
What is causing Jakarta to steadily sink?
According to the study’s findings, the primary source of the issue is the excessive use of groundwater by homeowners as a consequence of significant development. Residents in Jakarta rely on their own wells to get fresh water from the groundwater supply system.
What causes Jakarta to flood so frequently?
The misuse of groundwater in Jakarta is the primary cause of land subsidence. At the same time, owing to a lack of watershed lands and overpopulation of the capital, the groundwater’s ability to recharge has been reduced significantly.
Which city is dropping the most quickly?
As the world’s fastest sinking city (sinking by 6.7 inches per year), Jakarta is the fastest sinking metropolis globally. According to analysts, North Jakarta will be flooded to a depth of 95 per cent by the year 2050. The area has plummeted 2.5 meters below sea level in only ten years, with about half of the city now below sea level.
Why is Jakarta expanding at such a rapid pace?
Since 1940, the city of Jakarta has seen significant growth in population. An important factor in the rise in population may be immigration, which has changed Jakarta into one of the world’s most populous metropolitan agglomerations.
What portion of Jakarta is now underwater?
By the end of 2050, it is projected that North Jakarta will be submerged to a depth of up to 95 per cent. North Jakarta has already fallen 2.5 meters in the last ten years and is expected to continue sinking by about 25 centimetres each year in different regions of the city. As a result, this is more than double the worldwide average for coastal megacities throughout the globe.